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Arizona Space Business Roundtable at Biosphere 2 and SAM

Arizona Space Business Roundtable

The Arizona Space Business Roundtable held its monthly meeting at the Biosphere 2! The evening started with a walking tour of SAM (Space Analog for the Moon and Mars) at 4:00 pm followed by the Roundtable presentation and discussion at 5:30.

In summary, Stephen Flemming writes, “We had a great turnout at Biosphere 2 last night… about 40 people made the drive up from Tucson or down from Phoenix! We ran until 7:30 pm, so I know a lot of people didn’t get home until a lot later than usual. Thanks for taking the time!

We were welcomed by John Adams, Deputy Director of Biosphere 2, then Kai Staats led a walk-through of the SAM facility which is being built as a Space Analog for the Moon and Mars. You can learn about SAM at

Biosphere 2 set a new standard for the Arizona Space Business Roundtable by providing pizza, which we enjoyed before a pair of lectures by Kai and Trent and a lively Q&A session. The audience enjoyed learning about the plans for SAM and the opportunities it creates for academic, industry, startup, and government activities. It’s an amazing resource available to the Arizona space exploration community. We should take advantage of it!

SAM needs volunteers to help with construction and, like everything else, needs money. If you have an interest in contributing time, treasure, or attention, please contact Kai via the SAM contact form.

Arizona Space Business Roundtable at Biosphere 2 and SAM, photo by Stephen Flemming Arizona Space Business Roundtable at Biosphere 2 and SAM, photo by Stephen Flemming Arizona Space Business Roundtable at Biosphere 2 and SAM; quote by Trent Tresch

By |2022-02-18T05:23:01+00:00February 1st, 2022|Categories: Visitors to SAM|0 Comments

Saying farewell to SAM volunteers

SAM team and B2 staff at SAM, Biosphere 2

Yesterday we said goodbye to volunteers Jolene Varga and Rob Ronci (far left) from Colorado. They lived on the Biosphere 2 campus and worked with us at SAM for a full week. Thank you for jumping into the fire of the final week before pressure tests!

We also bid safe farewell to Trenton Kenney (back row, between Rob and Kai) from the University of Minnesota. “Kenney” was with us for three weeks and worked on just about every aspect of the project. We’ll miss your incredible cooking, fun anecdotes, and updates from the halls of NASA. But thank goodness my First Aid kit will no longer be used a few times each day!

Natasha Loving (front left, red shirt) is with the University of Arizona and provided her second week of volunteer work at SAM (Thr/Fri). She will be working with us over the summer, receiving credit for her work at SAM. Thank you for your diving into every project handed to you, and for singing while you worked as your voice echoed up into the Test Module—it was quite relaxing.

(SAM developers Trent Tresch and Kai Staats are in beige and black shirts, respectively)

Katie, Brittany, and John (right side) of the Biosphere 2 management and research staff, your support and enthusiasm for this project continues to be imperative to our success—thank you!

By |2021-06-30T05:28:23+00:00June 27th, 2021|Categories: Construction, Visitors to SAM|0 Comments

Biospherian Linda Leigh visits SAM

Kai Staats, Linda Leigh, Trenton Kenney, Douglas May at SAM, Biosphere 2

Today we were honored to receive Linda Leigh, one of the original eight Biospherians. Linda was responsible for coordinating the planning of B2’s land sections as well as collecting, storing, propagating and transferring more than 2,000 plant species for the original 1991-93 experiment. She is a resident of near-by Oracle where she continues her study of and intensive work with plants and food cultivars. She was featured in the 2020 documentary film “Spaceship Earth“. Linda conducted the longest stay in the Biosphere 2 prototype Test Module, sealed inside for three weeks. All of her air, water, food, and waste were recycled by the plant systems contained within. The fully refurbished Test Module is now cornerstone to SAM, the habitat analog being constructed at Biosphere 2.

Linda was joined by Douglas May, Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Arizona. Doug mentors the Engineering Capstone team projects each year, and was involved in the team that recently completed the Automated Pressure Regulation System for SAM. Trenton Kenney, volunteer at SAM for the month of June from the University of Minnesota and NASA intern is between Linda and Doug in the banner photo.

We enjoyed Linda’s stories about her time in the Test Module and are eager to learn more about her time in the Biosphere 2, her work as a plant ecology instructor, and continued work in community gardens and as a lecturer.

Welcome back Linda! We look forward to your next visit to SAM!

By |2021-06-24T04:52:16+00:00June 15th, 2021|Categories: Visitors to SAM|0 Comments

SAM Construction – From Red Sands to Red Planet

Colleen Cooley using a stud welder at SAM, Biosphere 2

This week Colleen Cooley, MSc visited SAM from the Diné Bikéyah (Navajo land) of the four corners region of Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. Colleen brought her tenacity for detail, creative solutions, fearless engagement of physical labor and stimulation for good conversations.

A raft guide of more than a decade Colleen is a consultant, volunteer, and advocate for various not-for-profit conservation organizations that work to find sustainable solutions to protect land, air, and water in the American Southwest. She brings a keen awareness of “water is life” in a region of our country that is only drying year after year. We discussed how as with the original Biosphere 2 our effort to build a hermetically sealed habitat for bioregeneration helps prepare us for living on another planet while at the same time informs how we can improve our interaction with our first home, here on Earth.

So much of our modern psyche is built on the false narrative that “technology will save us” when in fact our personal actions and life style choices (for those of us privileged to choose a “life style”) are what got us in this mess in the first place, but can help us move to a more sustainable future.

In her time volunteering at SAM, Colleen was immediately a member of our team, exclaiming “Let’s get it done!” when we entered the lung by headlamp (at 9 pm) to conduct our first stud welds, something none of us had experienced before. Thank you Colleen for five days of shoveling, drilling, welding, and motivation!

Don't mess with Colleen! SAM at Biosphere 2 Colleen Cooley shoveling dirt at SAM, Biosphere 2 Colleen Cooley measuring placement of new studes in the Test Module lung, SAM at Biosphere 2 Colleen Cooley placing rebar, SAM at Biosphere 2

Colleen is featured in a short documentary called “Water Flows Together” that reminds us of the importance of water conservation and protection, for everyone.

By |2021-06-12T22:36:39+00:00May 21st, 2021|Categories: Construction, Visitors to SAM|0 Comments

Those who lay the foundation

Biosphere 2 architect Phil Hawes visits SAM, speaks with Trent Tresch and Kai Staats

(Trent, Phil, and Kai have received full COVID vaccinations and were outdoors for the duration of this visit)

In the academic world the apprenticeship model is cornerstone to the transmission of knowledge and skills, made strong through the publication of research, experiment design, and data. Outside of academia, the world often takes for granted how we arrived to our knowledge base, to our technological prowess and industrial fortitude.

In our work on the Test Module, the prototype for the Biosphere 2 and now centerpiece for SAM, we have asked myriad questions (in our minds) of the Biospherians, Why did they build it that way? What was this used for? How did they come up with this idea? and What happens if we replace that with this? William Dempster and Taber MacCallum have been gracious with support and guidance via remote. In our pandemic riddled world it was unexpected to spend time with the third member of this design and engineering team, an individual who helped lay the foundation for the Test Module in which we stand. Today we had the honor of receiving Phil Hawes, architect of record (1985 -1992) for Biosphere 2 who worked closely with Dempster and MacCallum to design and build the Test Modules in 1986-87.

Phil spent the better part of two hours with us, telling stories of the architecture, technology, biology and ecology, and social dynamics that made Biosphere so unique. He emphasized (as needs to be emphasized again and again) that no experiment “fails” as long as we learn from the outcome. The failure would be to not learn from those aspects of the experiment that unfolded in ways unexpected.

Following his departure Trent and I (Kai) repeated the mantras shared by Phil, an echo from more than three decades prior that needs to be shared now even more than before:

  1. “Throw your heart in front of you and then run to catch up!”
  2. “Take risks and have adventures!”
  3. “Courage!” to do bold things that others will say can’t be done.

Sometimes leaders accomplish difficult tasks by act of will alone, for competition, or for profit. But those who truly shape the next generation do what they do because they love doing it. Others follow as a celebration of the process and the goal. Phil is relentless in his pursuit of the art and science of sustainable living both on this planet and beyond. He shared with us photos of a scale model he recently completed for a 19 acre sustainable community in Fairfield, Iowa. It was beautiful in its simplicity, layout, and flow. Thank you Phil for bringing us into your past and present as we move to reshape our shared future, on this planet and beyond.

Biosphere 2 architect Phil Hawes visits the Test MoBiosphere 2 architect Phil Hawes visits the Test Module at SAM One of the most knowledgeable and dedicated green architects on this planet, Phil Hawes has been a leading pioneer in alternative design and construction for more than 40 years. He has worked on projects in sustainable design, and educational programs in architecture, ecology, and community planning in California, Arizona and Washington State, and in Portugal, France, Nepal, and Australia; he continues his work in sustainable community development. Phil studied with Frank Lloyd Wright at Taliesin West in 1955-56. He holds a B.A. in Architectural Design from the University of Oklahoma and a Ph.D. in Sustainable Community Design from the San Francisco Institute of Architecture.

By |2022-01-16T16:20:19+00:00May 12th, 2021|Categories: Visitors to SAM|0 Comments

HI-SEAS’ Michaela Musilova visits SAM

HI-SEAS Michaela Musilova visits SAM at Biosphere 2

The Mars analog HI-SEAS director Dr. Michaela Musilova and her associate Zoe from Luke Air Force base visited SAM at Biosphere 2. It was my pleasure to be reunited with my former Mars Crew 134 crew member. Dr. Michaela Musilova is an astrobiologist with a focus on life in extreme environments. She earned her PhD at the University of Bristol (UK) and conducted research at University College London (UK), California Institute of Technology (USA), Chiba University (Japan) and others. She is a graduate from the International Space University (ISU)’s Space Studies Program.

Michaela has been serving as the HI-SEAS director on the Big Island of Hawaii for three years, working to upgrade the facilities and provide high quality team experiences.

By |2021-06-13T00:01:34+00:00May 7th, 2021|Categories: Visitors to SAM|0 Comments

SAM Construction – Master Doers Robert and Angus get it done!

Robert David, Angus Gluck working at SAM, Biosphere 2

Robert David reached out to me (Kai) in November 2020, when SAM was building momentum toward construction at Biosphere 2. Robert is a resident-employee at the world renowned Arcosanti, a prototype arcology in the high-elevation Arizona desert. This testing ground for the innovative architect Soleri’s progressive urban planning concepts is now five decades since its 1970 founding and is regarded as an early example of sustainable architecture that prioritizes live-work spaces where the surrounding natural environment is cherished over urban sprawl.

In many ways, Arcosanti could be taken as an analog for the first communities on Mars. This intrigued Kai early in the conversations with Robert. Robert’s friend of many years Angus Gluck spearheaded research into insulated shipping containers for the SAM living quarters, and is guiding their level placement upon arrival. Angus is a resident of Flagstaff, Arizona, a builder in many trades, and regular visitor to Arcosanti.

Robert and Angus came to us with a can-do, doesn’t matter how hard the project, we’ll get it done! attitude. True to their word, they dove right into grinding and sanding in the lung (which is not fun), a first and second pass of rust removal on the lung rings (see the banner at top), sanding the exterior of the lung shell, hanging electrical disconnects, and applying the primer in the Test Module. Our days and evenings were filled with conversation guided by Robert about the incredible confluence of mathematics, programming, and augmented digital realities, while Angus share insights into innovative, often efficient methods for construction and the development of living spaces.

Thank you both for your many contributions over such a short period of time.

Angus Gluck grinding at SAM, Biosphere 2 Robert David sanding at SAM, Biosphere 2 Robert David painting the Test Module at SAM, Biosphere 2 Angus Gluck hanging disconnects at SAM, Biosphere 2

By |2021-07-20T19:21:25+00:00April 30th, 2021|Categories: Visitors to SAM|0 Comments

Mars City Design and Company visit SAM

Vera, Bret and Sangita, Jasleen, Rafael, Hillary at SAM, Biosphere 2

Vera Mulyani, founder of the Mars City Design and her associates Bret and Sangita, Jasleen, Rafael, and Hillary were welcomed visitors to Biosphere 2 and SAM. Deputy Director John Adams provided an hour and a half personal tour of the Biosphere 2 facilities prior to a tour of the construction site for SAM. The day held engaging conversations about NASA, SpaceX, the contribution of analogs to human space exploration since the 1960s, and how Kai and Trent are two opposing variables in a dynamic, balanced equation.

From left to right: Rafael Martinez, Hillary Coe, Kai Staats, Bret and Sangita Engelkemier, Vera Mulyani, John Adams, Katie Morgan, Jasleen Gujral.

By |2021-04-30T06:30:08+00:00April 5th, 2021|Categories: Visitors to SAM|0 Comments

SAM Construction – MDRS Lends Four Hands

Linnaea Groh at SAM, Biosphere 2

This week we have had the great pleasure of receiving two volunteers from the world renowned Mars Society Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). Linnaea Groh and Atila Meszaros drove overland from Hanksville, Utah to spend a few days working on SAM. For four cold, wet days they removed tree roots, sanded, and painted. We thank them for a stellar close to the month of March!

Linnaea Groh at SAM, Biosphere 2 Atila Meszaros at SAM, Biosphere 2

Linnaea Groh at SAM, Biosphere 2 Atila Meszaros at SAM, Biosphere 2

Shannon Rupert, Director of MDRS was unable to visit at this time due to obligations with her own habitat analog. We look forward to having you to SAM soon! –kai

By |2021-06-12T22:37:56+00:00March 26th, 2021|Categories: Construction, Visitors to SAM|0 Comments

Cameron Smith on SAM at Biosphere 2

The best thing about this project is that the Test Module is not a PowerPoint presentation. It is a real object. I am helping refurbish the structure, with long sessions of grinding or other manual work that is ideal for thinking alone, uninterrupted. Some results of that time and thought, in the following.

My mind first considers the time context of my surroundings. The Test Module is an artifact, a structure generated by the minds and then hands of people. I imagine them here, originally, blurs moving about the gravitational center of this structure. I wander through what Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881) called the ‘billows of time’, writing in 1860:

“Rough Samuel and sleek wheedling James were and are not. Their Life and whole personal Environment has melted into air. The Mitre Tavern still stands in Fleet Street; but where now is its scot-and-lot paying, beef-and-ale loving, cocked-hatted, pot-bellied Landlord; its rosy-faced, assiduous Landlady, with all her shining brasspans, waxed tables, well-filled larder-shelves; her cooks, and bootjacks, and errand-boys, and watery-mouthed hangers-on? Gone! Gone!…The Bottles they drank out of are all broken, the Chairs they sat on all rotted and burnt ; the very Knives and Forks they ate with have rusted to the heart, and become brown oxide of iron, and mingled with the indiscriminate clay. All, all, has vanished…[yet]…the mysterious River of Existence rushes on: a new Billow thereof has arrived, and lashes wildly as ever round the old embankments; but the former Billow, with its loud, mad eddyings, where is it?”

From page 88 of Carlyle, T. 1860. Critical and Miscellaneous Essays (III). Boston, Brown and Taggard.

We’re the most recent of these billows, Kai, Trent, and myself. We rush around hammering and sawing, painting, hoovering, hauling. Our efforts will bring some new function to this shapely structure. The results will carry on beyond us, digitized as scientific findings. Our small piece of the vast puzzle of human knowledge will be set in place.

The glass, metal, plastics and other materials composing the structure were brought together decades ago. From minds, to lines on paper, to materials brought together, to assembly. As with all fabrication it can seem like a slow form of magic. But it is not supernatural. Science outlines the relationships of things without invoking supernature, attributed causes to natural phenomena, and allowed us little humans to move and assemble an infinite array of materials for our various purposes. Today we move individual atoms, we control the flow of electrons; we are learning to manipulate remotely-entangled quantum particles. By less-subtle but still effective matter- and energy-manipulating means, the Test Module was constructed in 1987, enclosing just over 400 cubic meters in a sealable environment. It would be used to better understand the workings of living systems by the method of sequestering them from the rest of living systems.

Biosphere 2 test module experimentation program by Alling, A., L.S. Leigh, T. MacCallum and N. Alvarez. 1990 These purposes were presented in Biological Life Support Technologies: Commercial Opportunities, NASA Biosphere 2 test module experimentation program by Alling, A., L.S. Leigh, T. MacCallum and N. Alvarez. 1990.

The structure was used, useful quanta were generated and then attention turned to the larger Biosphere, and the Test Module languished. It took on dust. Paint cracked and flaked away with gusts of wind. A window’s exterior pane was shattered by a pebble flung up by a weed-eater. Spots of rust wept orange streaks down the white exterior.

But after decades of this anonymity, attention returned to the Test Module. It still stood. Kai Staats, decades in the worlds of high power computing, radio astronomy and various fields of invention turned his energies to the research potential of the Biosphere. Deputy director John Adams pointed out that the Test Module remained viable. It needed work, but the essential structure was intact. In the nation and the world, the last decade had seen a new ‘billow’ of form shaping; serious thought was again entertained about the possibilities of humans living beyond the surface of the Earth. This can only be done if we come to understand the ecology of closed environments. Kai had built SIMOC, a computer model of a closed ecosystem now using the power of distributed computing to simulate complex habitats. The Test Module, thought Kai, could be the material analog of SIMOC, eventually informing, improving the fidelity of the datasets. And here we are.

Cameron Smith holding Test Module placards, SAM at Biosphere 2 Lowell patterns in the paint of the Test Module, SAM at Biosphere 2 Sunset over Biosphere 2 by Cameron Smith

We pull and pry old objects from the Test Module. White on black monitor labels “SAMPLE”. Grinding paint from a steel bulkhead, strangely familiar shapes appear before me. They remind me of Percival Lowell’s certain discovery of canals on Mars. We keep grinding and then paint and eventually these billows also melt away. When we complete a task we whoop and holler aloud. It’s fun and it feels good to walk up to our quarters to make dinner; tonight, spaghetti with a cold beer. One sunset the air was full of moisture, glowing.

The form of the Test Module is structured by engineering paradigms of Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983), who was – among so much more – fascinated with the concept and realization of efficient enclosures. Again I bump up against a billow in time, I was taken to meet Fuller at my father’s university in the early 1980’s, then he was carried off to his world and I to mine and here I am back in manifestations of his mind.

Next to being real, and not a PowerPoint, the best thing I can think of the Test Module and its associated SAM project and the Biosphere project at large is the goodwill. These are things manifested from the mindset that all humanity can benefit from science and the imagination that it can ignite. I wonder what visitors to the larger Biosphere 2 structure think of the project. Sometimes I thank them for taking a little while to imagine something else, other possibilities. There are other ways to be, we can imagine them, sometimes we build models of them, sometimes we manage to live them. Only the coldest cynic or the most disinterested person could wonder at the use of such giant ideals manifest.

Another part of my being here; space suits. For the last decade, after my work as a prehistorian at Portland State Univeristy’s Department of Anthropology, I have been engaged in designing, building and testing a variety of pressurized garments; bubbles of ‘livingry’ that could allow humans to survive, for example, on Mars. We test them at altitudes, flying balloons, helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft…whatever will get us off the surface of Earth and testing things in the real world. They are working; they hold pressure, maintain acceptable temperature and CO2 levels, and allow the mobility needed for their various purposes. A single suit takes some months to complete. Now I come to build some suits of this kind for SAM. The challenges are invigorating. They must be durable, washable, easily-repaired, with few complexities; like an old farm pickup truck, nothing exotic, but entirely reliable and eminently refurbishable. I’ll work to maintain these features for the SAM suits. I think about them as I sand the steel bulkhead. Circular motions. Can I improve sleeve fit adjustment straps? Did I ever follow up on that new snap-link closure? How often will these be used in a given SAM simulation day? I need to write instructions on how to clean with detergent and then dry them. I keep sanding. The answers are jotted down in my pocket notepad. The sky flares orange and we head back up the hill for dinner.

A training garment for underwater, neutral buoyancy training (2018) by Cameron Smith An early Mars surface EVA training suit being tested in Oregon’s Alvord Desert (2019) by Cameron Smith

A training suit helmet by Cameron Smith Communications carrier caps by Cameron Smith

By |2021-05-12T07:00:08+00:00February 16th, 2021|Categories: Visitors to SAM|0 Comments